8. IOW, A History of Europe was written in 1914-18 while Pirenne was a civilian prisoner of Germany. (Pirenne refused to speak in German to the officer sent to persuade the University of Louvain to end their protests and resume their teaching.) He credited his removal from his historical texts during his imprisonment as having forced him not to consider atomistic dates, but holistic trends. (His imprisonment also made him decidedly skeptical about Germany.) A History of Europe was written in FAN, then, but from a decidedly more Germanophilic and date-centred authorial position than IOW.
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