Barton Kelly was a member of the Jeffersonian army that occupied Mexico City from February 6, 1817 to September 5, 1821. Kelly was a colonel in the summer of 1818 when Andrew Jackson, the commander of the Jeffersonian garrison and provisional president of Mexico, appointed him his deputy and left to campaign in the October 1818 elections in Jefferson. Kelly was able to put down a coup attempt on February 1, 1819 by supporters of José María Morelos, but the incident led Jackson to leave Jefferson and return to Mexico City on May 4, resuming the provisional presidency.

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