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The Hague Treaty was the peace treaty ending the Rocky Mountain War between the Confederation of North America and the United States of Mexico. The treaty was signed in 1855 by Senator Frank Rinehart for the U.S.M. and Minister of War John Wolff for the C.N.A.

When hostilities broke out between Mexican and North American settlers in the disputed Broken Arrow region in 1845, Mexican President Miguel Huddleston and C.N.A. Governor-General Winfield Scott agreed in April to arbitration of the dispute by a three-nation panel made up of Spain, the Germanic Confederation, and the Netherlands. However, King Miguel of Spain withdrew from the panel at the last minute, and no substitute could be found. By September 1845, the Rocky Mountain War had begun.

In September 1851, newly-elected Mexican President Hector Niles offered to meet with Governor-General Henry Gilpin to negotiate a peace agreement. Gilpin refused, and continued his efforts to defeat the Mexicans militarily. Gilpin's failure resulted in the election of William Johnson in February 1853. In April Johnson agreed to Niles' offer to negotiate, and Senator Rinehart and Minister Wolff met in The Hague in June. The two men agreed to recreate the arbitration panel from 1845. Miguel of Spain's successor, Ferdinand VIII, agreed to participate, and the arbitration panel began meeting in November. Meanwhile, Niles and Johnson agreed to an armistice beginning on 1 August 1853.

The arbitration panel issued a report on 15 June 1855 recommending that the disputed territory be ceded to the C.N.A., which should have received it from Spain in the 1799 Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle. The U.S.M. would receive an indemnity of NA£2.5 million for slaves who had fled to the C.N.A., though Sobel claims that few slaves succeeded in escaping from the U.S.M., and that the indemnity was really for the loss of the disputed territory. The treaty did not fix any blame on either nation for starting the war. Both sides accepted the findings, and the treaty was signed on 7 August 1855.


Sobel's source for the Hague Treaty is Frank Taft's The End of the War: The Hague in 1853-1855 (Melbourne, 1967).

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